The trend towards urbanization is increasing and it is projected that 68% of world population will live in urban settlements by 2050. In Indonesia, the Jakarta Population and Civil Registy Office (Dukcapil) observed a continuous rise in urbanization, predicting a 2% annual increase in new arrivals to Jakarta, which is already the most populous city in Indonesia. Within urban settings, marginalized groups with high mobility require special attention in terms of their health and social needs. Due to their high mobility and lack of access to health services, including immunization, there is increased risk of outbreak for infectious diseases in these urban centers. Therefore, immunization efforts are important, as these interventions are the most efficient way to control the spread of infectious diseases, primarily vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs).
As a part of a global initiative, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi) co-leads a multi-partner working group on urban immunization and includes an objective to compile and share lessons and information on urban immunization. This global initiative also includes a multi-country effort, funded by Gavi under the Partners’ Engagement Framework (PEF), to address the immunization needs for urban poor populations. The PEF project in Indonesia, led by JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc. (JSI), specifically works to generate data and information to create recommendations on improving access for basic immunization services to infants, children in their second year of life, and the urban poor in Indonesia, in addition to supporting ongoing immunization-strengthening activities.
 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). 2018. 68% of the world population projected to live in urban areas by 2050, says UN. New York, NY. United Nafions Department of Economic and Social Affairs.https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html.
 Kartika, H. 2018. Pemprov DKI Jakarta siapkan langkah antisipasi peningkatan arus urbanisasi. Jakarta, Indonesia: Kontan.co.id. https://regional.kontan.co.id/news/pemprov-dki-jakarta-siapkan-langkah-antisipasi-peningkatan-arus-urbanisasi.